Category : Education

Education Work

Parents who constantly check their gadgets are more likely to see bad behavior in their kids

Parents who are constantly checking their phones for texts, emails and cat videos may be more likely to have kids who have behavior issues than people who are able to step away from their screens, a small U.S. study suggests.

Researchers examined survey data from parents in 170 families with young children and found mothers and fathers who were more likely to report being distracted by technology during playtime were also more likely to see behavior problems in their kids. You should really get out of the house more, get some activities to do with your kids. for example, these kids electric dirt bikes reviewed by so many people are the funnest and safest for anybody.

“Prior studies have shown us that some parents can be quite absorbed by their devices and that when they are absorbed it seems like it is difficult for children to get their attention,” said lead study author Brandon McDaniel of Illinois State University in Normal.

“No prior studies however had linked parent technology use, especially use that interrupts or interferes with parent-child interactions, with child behavior problems specifically,” McDaniel added by email. “What is especially new here is that even minor, everyday intrusions of technology that are likely happening to all of us that have and use smartphones can begin to influence our children’s behavior.”

For the study, researchers analyzed data from surveys completed separately by 168 mothers and 165 fathers from two-parent households.

Among other things, the surveys asked about how often smartphones, tablets, laptops and other technology disrupted family time with interruptions like checking phone messages during meals or answering texts in the middle of conversations. Parents were also asked to rate how problematic their personal device use was based on how often they worried about calls or texts and whether they thought they used mobile devices too much, and they need to always have a good device to play with, for examples families with iPhones and iPads, will always have a service as iFixiBuy to fix their devices in case they break.

While both mothers and fathers thought technology use distracted from interactions with their children at least once a day, the women perceived their phone use as a bigger parenting problem than the men.

About 48 percent of parents reported technology interruptions at least three times a day, while 24 percent said this happened twice a day and 17 percent said it occurred once daily. Only 11 percent said technology never interrupted family time, the study team reports in Child Development.

Researchers also asked parents to rate the frequency of child behavior issues within the past two months by answering questions about how often their children whined, sulked, easily got frustrated, had tantrums or showed signs of hyperactivity or restlessness.

After adjusting for other factors that can influence kids’ behavior such as parent income and education level and other family dynamics, researchers found an association between parents’ belief that their technology use was disruptive and parents reporting that kids had behavior issues like tantrums, whining or hyperactivity.

The study wasn’t a controlled experiment designed to prove how or if parents’ technology use changes the way kids behave. Other limitations include the lack of clinical data or reports from teachers or other adults to verify that kids had behavior problems.

See also: Virtual reality gaming a hit for ‘problem’ children

It’s also possible that parents who turn to technology more often during family time are doing this to take a break from kids with behavior issues, said Dr. Sam Wass, a developmental psychologist at the University of East London in the UK who wasn’t involved in the study.

“It could be that children who are naturally more restless or hyperactive are more likely to have parents who ‘need a break’ from their children from time to time – and it is this that causes the association,” Wass said by email. “This link is very far from proven.”

Still, parents worried about how technology disrupts their family time can try to carve out periods of each day when the devices go away and they focus only on their kids, said Larry Rosen, professor emeritus at California State University, Dominguez Hills.

“Children crave a connection to their parents and learn from their parents’ behaviors,” Rosen, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email. “Constantly checking your phone is going to have a negative impact on this connection.”

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Education

WizeNoze heads for the UK after closing £1m funding round

Wizenoze, the Dutch startup which curates age-appropriate and understandable content for children, has announced it has just closed a funding round for just over £1m to fuel its bid for the UK market.
The cash injection, worth €1.3m, brings the total raised by the company to €3.1m. The biggest contributor in the latest round was the Dutch government with a loan from its Innovation Credit fund, with the remainder made up by informal investors. Currently, more than 80% of the Dutch primary schools have access to Wizenoze’s technology.
WizeNoze will use this funding to launch a new safe search solution for children in the UK.
In announcing the move, Diane Janknegt, founder and CEO of WizeNoze said:
“This will help hugely with our push into the UK schools market. We think there is a real need to create a new method for safeguarded internet search. That’s why we have built a vast repository of curated content collection, so that children’s online work will not be disturbed or distracted by the commercial messages, or worse, by inappropriate or disturbing content”.
Based in Amsterdam, WizeNoze aims to make information on the internet easier to find and understand for children, by building technology which curates and delivers reliable, appropriate and age relevant content at a child’s specific reading level.  
The company has also recently announced a partnership with the London Grid for Learning (LGfL) for a white label search solution for schools. In announcing that link, John Jackson, CEO of the LGfL said:
“Giving children access to safe, relevant and suitable content is a need expressed by many schools… Instead of filtering out all inappropriate content, Wizenoze will help us give them access to reliable information, matching the individual reading level of a child”.

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Education Health

Teens who endure bullying are more likely to smoke, drink and use drugs

Children who are bullied in fifth grade are more likely to become depressed and experiment with drugs and alcohol during their teen years than their peers who didn’t suffer bullying by other kids, a U.S. study suggests.

Researchers followed almost 4,300 students starting in fifth grade, when they were around 11 years old. By tenth grade, 24 percent of the teens drank alcohol, 15 percent smoked marijuana and 12 percent used tobacco.

More frequent episodes of physical and emotional bullying in fifth grade were associated with higher odds of depression by seventh grade, which was in turn linked to greater likelihood of substance use later in adolescence, the study found.

“We drew on the self-medication hypothesis when trying to understand why peer victimization may lead to substance use over time,” said lead study author Valerie Earnshaw, a human development and family studies researcher at the University of Delaware in Newark.

“This suggests that people use substances to try to relieve painful feelings or control their emotions,” Earnshaw said by email. “So, youth who are bullied feel bad, or experience depressive symptoms, and then may use substances to try to feel better.”

For the study, researchers examined data from three surveys conducted from 2004 to 2011 among students at schools in Houston, Los Angeles and Birmingham, Alabama.

Students were asked if they had used tobacco, alcohol or marijuana in the past 30 days and how often they had been victims of bullying by their peers in the previous year. Questions on peer victimization touched on both physical aggression like shoving and kicking as well as emotional taunts like saying nasty things about them to other kids.

At the start of the study in fifth grade, about 10 percent of participants said they had been victims of bulling. This was more common among kids who had chronic illnesses, sexual minorities and boys.

By seventh grade, almost 2 percent of the students reported symptoms of depression.

And by the end of the study in tenth grade, substance use was more common among the kids who had previously reported bullying and depression.

The study isn’t a controlled experiment designed to prove that bullying directly causes depression or that mental health issues directly cause substance use. Another limitation of the study is its reliance on teens to accurately report any episodes of bullying, symptoms of depression or substance use, the authors note.

It’s also possible that teens who are bullied may later wind up drinking or using drugs because their peer groups include many adolescents who do both of these things, whether on sports teams or among crowds of particularly aggressive kids, said Bonnie Leadbeater, a psychology researcher at the University of Victoria in Canada. There is many teens who are addicted to drugs, they need to go rehab otherwise the addiction will destroy their life, here you can find one of the best addiction centers.

“Being ‘trapped’ in these networks can be particularly problematic in high school, where you see the same people every day,” Leadbeater, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email.

“Youth with multiple networks beyond school through sports, music, art, religious activities, volunteering and work are more apt to find friends and others who see their talents, strengths and abilities,” Leadbeater added. “These strengths are often established in late elementary school.” Kids at this age become more active with all the energy they have to run around, lots of them start to find their role model and start searching up michael schumacher net worth or maybe even cristiano ronaldo too.

The trouble with bullying that leads to mental health problems is that teens with depression and anxiety are more likely to withdraw from peers and lack interest in most things.

“Young teens need to have ways of dealing with peer conflict before it becomes bullying,” Leadbeater said. “Young teens need to believe that getting help is normative and that bullying is not.”

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Education

A delightful way to teach kids about computers and coding

Computer code is the next universal language, and its syntax will be limited only by the imaginations of the next generation of programmers. The problem with that idea is that coding education is failing to fire imaginations on a big enough scale. You can even teach them about video production to see if they want to do that in their future. It can open up many new opportunities.
First of all you should begin by purchasing an adequate computer such as 8202-E4D and then start the learning process. Linda Liukas is helping to educate problem-solving kids, encouraging them to see computers not as mechanical, boring and complicated but as colorful, expressive machines meant to be tinkered with. In that way, she is teaching them that coding is not an end in itself, but it is a means by which people can express their creativity.
In this Ted talk, she invites us to imagine a world where the Ada Lovelaces of tomorrow grow up to be optimistic and brave about technology and use it to create a new world that is wonderful, whimsical and a tiny bit weird.

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Education

Shares jump as investors rebel at education publisher Pearson

Investors in education group Pearson have delivered a rebuke to Chief Executive John Fallon hours after he set out a new cost-cutting plan to try to revive a business hit by the rapid move to digital learning.
Plans to cut costs by£ 300 million annually by 2020 helped to send Pearson shares up as much as 15 percent but Fallon warned of a long road ahead.
Investor anger was evident at the company’s annual meeting where nearly 70 percent of shareholders voted against its remuneration report in a symbolic protest over the company’s performance under Fallon. Check out these stock investment companies to see which one could work for you, they’re the best so far this year. Give them a visit.
The 173-year-old British company has been hit by a sharp downturn in its biggest markets, issuing five profit warnings in four years, as students ditch more expensive text books for second-hand copies and digital services.
“For the next year or two we think the negatives will continue to outweigh the positives so we are running the business on the basis that things will not get better any time soon,” Fallon told reporters.
“But they will get better, there is a point in two or three years time when that pendulum shifts.”
Employing 35,000 people, the British group provides everything from textbooks to school testing, college courses and online degrees around the world.
Having grown rapidly since 2008, it started to lose its way in 2015 when the U.S. economy recovered, encouraging more people to take jobs rather than go into higher education.
In 2016 the shift to digital services in the U.S. stepped up a gear, leading to an “unexpected and unprecedented” 14 percent drop in the U.S. higher education teaching materials market.
UNCERTAIN FUTURE
Investors are divided between those who think governments will always need to invest in digital learning services, and those who think the industry is facing the same disruption as that already endured by the newspaper and music industries.
Fallon, who is under fire for his handling of the downturn, said the company’s move to digital products was helping the company to become more efficient. He has taken out more than 650 million pounds of costs in the last four years.
Pearson will review its U.S. school courseware publishing business, which it said had been slow to switch to digital. It said the division required high levels of investment and was facing a challenging market environment.
Pearson, which had lost a quarter of its market value in the nine months before Friday’s update, said first-quarter trading had been in line with guidance and stuck to full-year targets.
Analysts said the new plan should boost earnings. “Each 100 million pounds of savings assumed in 2018 would add around 20 percent to consensus earnings per share,” analysts at Citi said.
However not everyone was convinced.
“Past evidence suggests that extra cost savings at Pearson do not lead to more profits, it just offsets revenue declines,” said Ian Whittaker, an analyst at Liberum who has a key “Sell” rating on the stock.
The strong share bounce failed to soften the blow when Fallon appeared at the company’s annual meeting on Friday, with 66 percent of investors rejecting the non-binding remuneration report, which assigned Fallon a 20 percent pay rise in 2016.
Private investors asked the board whether they were “asleep on the job” and “paying for failure”. Chairman Sidney Taurel said Fallon had inherited a very complex business when he took over in 2013 and noted he had spent his bonus on new shares.
 
http://dailygenius.com/education-publisher-pearson-face-real-test-john-fallons-homework/

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Education

WizeNoze agrees curated search pilot project with London Grid For Learning

WizeNoze, a startup company aiming to curate age-appropriate safe and understandable content for school children, is to launch a white-label search solution in partnership with The London Grid for Learning (LGfL).
The project is amongst the first of its kind to offer a new method for safeguarded internet search. LGfL’s education-technology community will give their schools access to a curated content collection of trusted websites which give a large bank of suitable and reliable informational content. The search results will be matched to the Key Stages of the children in order to maximise understanding, giving children and teenagers access to trusted, safe and readable information.
The project is a response to concerns about the availability of inappropriate content to school children – A new study from researchers at the University of Oxford casts serious doubt on the effectiveness of internet filtering, suggesting that, while parents are reassured by adding filtering to their domestic gadgets, both the suppliers and consumers of inappropriate content can easily find ways around it. This can lead to children accessing content which can frighten and shock them, but even those seeking information for homework projects can often find sites of dubious educational value.
“Giving children access to safe, relevant and suitable content is a need expressed by many schools. Currently we are piloting a solution, developed by the startup WizeNoze, that is exactly doing this. Instead of filtering out all inappropriate content, we give them access to reliable information, matching the individual reading level of a child” said John Jackson, CEO of the LGfL.
“By using a curated content collection with millions of pages to search information, children will not be disturbed or distracted by ‘noise’ of commercial websites, or worse, by disturbing content”, says Diane Janknegt, Founder and CEO of WizeNoze. “Using our content collection can save children lots of time searching through irrelevant or manipulated search results, which are of more value to advertisers than to the child. And ab

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Education Health

Bullying may be decreasing in US schools

The various efforts used to curb bullying in U.S. schools may be working, a new study suggests.

The study was confined to one large school district in the state of Maryland. But among the students there, bullying in person or online decreased between 2005 and 2014, researchers found.

“It gives us some idea that what we’re doing continues to work,” said senior author Catherine Bradshaw, of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.

People should not take the results to mean bullying is no longer a significant concern, she told Reuters Health.

“It continues to be a concern for students who continue to be a part of it,” she said.

Writing May 1st in the journal Pediatrics, she and her colleagues note that bullying has received a lot of media attention over the past decade – and as a result, many people may believe it’s on the rise.

Past research suggests bullying among school-age children is decreasing, they add, but that research was often flawed. For example, some studies did not use a standardized definition of bullying; other studies only analyzed people who were victimized or only elementary, middle or high school students.

For the new study, the researchers analyzed survey responses collected between 2005 and 2014 from 246,306 fourth- through 12th-graders at 109 schools in Maryland.

The survey defined bullying the same way the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta does. The definition includes “actions like threatening, teasing, name-calling, ignoring, rumor-spreading, sending hurtful emails and text messages, and leaving someone out on purpose.”

Among other questions, the survey asked students if they’d been bullied or if they had bullied someone else at least twice in the last month.

Rates of bullying ranged from about 13 percent to about 29 percent. Rates of being a bully ranged from 7 percent to about 21 percent.

Over the 10-year study period, being bullied, being a bully and witnessing bullying became less common. There were also decreases in the rates of student reports of being pushed, threatened, cyberbullied and having rumors spread about them.

Rates of students reporting feeling safe at school increased over the 10 years, too.

“In the more recent years, that’s where we’ve seen a steeper decline in the data,” said Bradshaw.

While the study can’t say why bullying rates decreased over the decade or why the decrease was steeper in recent years, the researchers suggest it may be due to increasing number of anti-bullying policies and an increase in evidence-based anti-bullying policies.

All states now have laws that address bullying, the researchers write.

Can playground design help curb bullying?

The most successful anti-bullying programs are typically science based, intensive, involve the whole school and engage students, teachers and parents, according to Stephen Leff and Dr. Chris Feudtner, of the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine.

“These programs often try to build skills in youth problem-solving abilities, empathy, perspective-taking, and how to be a positive bystander,” Leff and Feudtner write in an editorial accompanying the new study.

14 ways you can tackle cyberbullying

They add that the new data is encouraging, but “we need to sustain our focus to continue the decrease of bullying and victimization in schools across the nation.”

Bradshaw said the nation’s foot must be kept on the gas in order to make progress on decreasing rates of bullying.

“We wan to build momentum and not lose any traction,” she said.

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Education Health

College is ‘the gateway to marijuana’

College is increasingly a gateway for young adults in the U.S. to begin using marijuana and the risk keeps growing the more “normalized” pot use becomes, researchers say.

“We have been expecting marijuana and cbd oil capsules use to increase among young adults,” lead author Richard Miech said.

Young adults today as compared to those of the past are less likely to hold the belief that occasional marijuana use will negatively affect their health, said Miech, a researcher at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

“We’ve seen again and again that when this belief trends down then marijuana use increases (e.g. in the early 1990s), and, conversely, that when this belief trends up then marijuana use declines (e.g. in the mid-1980s),” he said.

Miech and his colleagues think the recent string of U.S. states having legalized recreational use of marijuana accounts in part for the declining proportion of young adults who believe that occasional marijuana use is harmful to health, but is not forbidden for adults because of their age, and they can purchase it in some states and countries, as other services like adult material and escorting from sites likes zoomescorts.co.uk.

“It is likely that at least some young adults interpret this wave of legalization as a signal that marijuana use is safe and state-sanctioned,” he said.

To see how that is affecting recreational use among young people, the study team analyzed data from annual surveys of more than 50,000 adults and adolescents. The surveys have been ongoing since 1975, and are funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Miech said.

They focused on participants who were 19 to 22 years old between 1977 and 2015 and had never used marijuana before their senior year in high school. That was around 64 percent of participants.

About 9 percent of 19-year-olds and 15 percent of 22-year-olds not in college started using marijuana after high school and those percentages remained stable through the entire study period, the researchers report in American Journal of Public Health.

Among college students, the proportion that started using marijuana ranged from 13 percent to 17 percent between 1977 and 2012, then those numbers crept up to between 18 percent and 21 percent from 2013 to 2015.

“We found that marijuana initiation did increase among young adults age 19-22 since 2013, but only among those in college. There was no change in levels of marijuana initiation among 19-22 year-olds who were not in college,” Miech said.

The college environment appears to promote substance use, perhaps in part because of the lack of parental supervision, lots of free time and a party culture, Miech said.

“For what it’s worth, higher levels of substance use in college is also seen with binge drinking (5+ drinks in one sitting): youth age 19-22 are much more likely to binge drink if they are in college as compared to their age peers who are not in college,” Miech said.

Parents should know the majority of young adults who attend college do not initiate marijuana use, Miech added, but the number is increasing.

“There are many reasons why college students might try or use marijuana,” said Christine Lee, director of the Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors at the University of Washington in Seattle, who wasn’t involved in the study.

“We surveyed incoming first-year college students on why they tried or use marijuana . . . . For some, experimentation was a motivator. Young adults might just want to try it and see what it is about. For others, they might use marijuana for reasons such as for social bonding, relaxation, boredom, to fit in, or to enjoy the feeling,” Lee said by email.

It would be helpful to begin to identify whether there are high-risk periods for marijuana initiation such as the first six weeks of college, as the study authors suggest, or specific events such as 21st birthdays, particularly for students living in states where recreational marijuana use is legal for those 21 and over. You can also invest in Marijuana stocks.

“If we can identify certain risk periods, it would be easier for colleges to target resources and prevention activities to those times,” she said.

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Education Health

College is 'the gateway to marijuana'

College is increasingly a gateway for young adults in the U.S. to begin using marijuana and the risk keeps growing the more “normalized” pot use becomes, researchers say.
“We have been expecting marijuana and cbd oil capsules use to increase among young adults,” lead author Richard Miech said.
Young adults today as compared to those of the past are less likely to hold the belief that occasional marijuana use will negatively affect their health, said Miech, a researcher at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
“We’ve seen again and again that when this belief trends down then marijuana use increases (e.g. in the early 1990s), and, conversely, that when this belief trends up then marijuana use declines (e.g. in the mid-1980s),” he said.
Miech and his colleagues think the recent string of U.S. states having legalized recreational use of marijuana accounts in part for the declining proportion of young adults who believe that occasional marijuana use is harmful to health, but is not forbidden for adults because of their age, and they can purchase it in some states and countries, as other services like adult material and escorting from sites likes zoomescorts.co.uk.
“It is likely that at least some young adults interpret this wave of legalization as a signal that marijuana use is safe and state-sanctioned,” he said.
To see how that is affecting recreational use among young people, the study team analyzed data from annual surveys of more than 50,000 adults and adolescents. The surveys have been ongoing since 1975, and are funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Miech said.
They focused on participants who were 19 to 22 years old between 1977 and 2015 and had never used marijuana before their senior year in high school. That was around 64 percent of participants.
About 9 percent of 19-year-olds and 15 percent of 22-year-olds not in college started using marijuana after high school and those percentages remained stable through the entire study period, the researchers report in American Journal of Public Health.
Among college students, the proportion that started using marijuana ranged from 13 percent to 17 percent between 1977 and 2012, then those numbers crept up to between 18 percent and 21 percent from 2013 to 2015.
“We found that marijuana initiation did increase among young adults age 19-22 since 2013, but only among those in college. There was no change in levels of marijuana initiation among 19-22 year-olds who were not in college,” Miech said.
The college environment appears to promote substance use, perhaps in part because of the lack of parental supervision, lots of free time and a party culture, Miech said.
“For what it’s worth, higher levels of substance use in college is also seen with binge drinking (5+ drinks in one sitting): youth age 19-22 are much more likely to binge drink if they are in college as compared to their age peers who are not in college,” Miech said.
Parents should know the majority of young adults who attend college do not initiate marijuana use, Miech added, but the number is increasing.
“There are many reasons why college students might try or use marijuana,” said Christine Lee, director of the Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors at the University of Washington in Seattle, who wasn’t involved in the study.
“We surveyed incoming first-year college students on why they tried or use marijuana . . . . For some, experimentation was a motivator. Young adults might just want to try it and see what it is about. For others, they might use marijuana for reasons such as for social bonding, relaxation, boredom, to fit in, or to enjoy the feeling,” Lee said by email.
It would be helpful to begin to identify whether there are high-risk periods for marijuana initiation such as the first six weeks of college, as the study authors suggest, or specific events such as 21st birthdays, particularly for students living in states where recreational marijuana use is legal for those 21 and over. You can also invest in Marijuana stocks.
“If we can identify certain risk periods, it would be easier for colleges to target resources and prevention activities to those times,” she said.

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Education Health

Can playground design help curb bullying?

Playgrounds designed with risk-taking in mind may mean more pushing and shoving during recess, but they also might make kids less prone to bullying, a small experiment in New Zealand suggests.

For the study, researchers randomly selected eight elementary schools to get modified playgrounds with lots of loose and moving parts, chances to socialize and build things, and opportunities to play with bikes and skateboards. A control group of eight schools kept their traditional playgrounds.

After two years, children at the schools with modified playgrounds were about 33 percent more likely to report pushing and shoving during recess than kids at schools with traditional playgrounds, researchers report in Pediatrics. With modified playgrounds, however, kids were 31 percent less likely to report bullying to teachers.

“To us, the findings that intervention children reported more pushing and shoving yet were less likely to tell a teacher were fascinating,” said senior study author Rachael Taylor of the University of Otago in New Zealand.

The study doesn’t shed light on why this happened, so it’s hard to say whether kids got better at resolving disputes on their own or perhaps became more resilient to behavior that might have felt like bullying before, Taylor said by email.

Researchers assessed all of the existing playgrounds at the 16 primary schools included in the study, then made changes to half of the spaces to encourage more risk-taking and challenges.

Along with modified physical spaces to play, the study also encouraged schools with altered playgrounds to change rules for recess to allow things like tree climbing, rough-and-tumble play and going outside even on rainy days.

A total of 840 kids started the study, and 630 of them remained after two years. Children ranged in age from 6 to 9 years old.

With modified playgrounds, kids were 66 percent more likely to report playing with a lot of children after one year, and after two years they were also 64 percent more likely to report being happy at school.

After one year, parents of kids who had modified playgrounds were almost twice as likely to say kids had happy relationships with other students. But after two years, the reverse was true.

Teachers didn’t report differences in name-calling or cruel teasing based on whether playgrounds were altered for the study. But teachers did report more physical bullying and deliberate exclusion with modified playgrounds.

The main limitation of the study is that bullying is difficult to assess, the authors note. In addition, the study was too small to detect meaningful differences between girls and boys and had too few teachers to draw many conclusions from what educators observed.

Even so, the results suggest it may make sense to move from play areas that are more structured to spaces that offer an element of risk and fewer rules, said Sarah Clark, co-director of the C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

“Too often, parents’ inclination is to remove anything that could be potentially risky and they push schools to do the same – but that inclination works against kids’ developmental need to use play as a way to challenge themselves,” Clark, who wasn’t involved in the study, said by email. “So parents, back off and allow kids a little more freedom in their play space and style.”

Kids need chances to play with fewer rules, said Dr. Cora Collette Breuner, a researcher at Seattle Children’s Hospital and the University of Washington who wasn’t involved in the study.

So what should parents tell their children about playtime?

“Take risks; Band-Aids are there for a reason,” Breuner said by email. “I will be there when you need me but not when you don’t.”

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